Pregnancy is also known as gestation. Average duration of pregnancy is of 40 weeks. To identify early pregnancy symptoms this may be due to missed menstrual periods, tenderness of breasts, nausea and vomiting, increase in appetite, and increase in frequency of urination.
To confirm pregnancy this can be done through pregnancy test.
At the time getting pregnant in which one or more offspring develops inside a mother womb. Normally and mostly women give birth to one baby but multiple pregnancy is also possible in which she delivers more than one offspring, such as twins or triplet baby. Very rarely it can be 4 or more.
Pregnancy occurs due to sexual intercourse. After getting pregnant, this usually lasts around 40 weeks from the last menstrual period (LMP).
After 37 to 40 week or it is just over nine lunar month of conception it results in shape of reward by giving birth to a baby or occasionally babies.
An initial stage of gestation is term as embryo which last for first eight weeks. This develop offspring during the first eight weeks following after conception. After end of embryo the stage, the rest of the period is term as fetus and use till the birth.
The whole period of pregnancy is divided in three trimester and they are called 1st trimester, 2nd trimester and 3rd trimester.
First triesmter starts from week one and last till 12 week. During this period it carries highest risk of miscarriage or abortion
Second trimester starts from 13 week and last till 28 weeks. During 19 or 20 week or around middle of 2nd trimester movements of fetus is observe.
It has been observe and establish fact if baby is deliver at 28 weeks, more than 90% of babies now may survive if they are out of uterus, this is subject to proper / good quality medical care is provided.
The period of 3rd trimester starts from start of 29 week last till 40th week or baby normally /routinely deliver after 37 week.
If proper recommended prenatal care is taken care off during entire pregnancy symptoms, it improves the outcome. The prenatal care is regularly advice by your gynecologist or doctor or midwives during your monthly routine checkup during pregnancy. In prenatal care it is advice for intake of folic acid, regular physical examination by your physician, regular exercise and blood test
[icon type=”glyphicon glyphicon-asterisk” fontsize=”200″]The pregnancy symptoms may be, high blood pressure, severe nausea and vomiting, anemia, gestational diabetes and among others
37 to 41 weeks is term as pregnancy week, full term refer as 39 and 40 weeks, early term is use for 37 and 38 weeks and late term is refer for 41st week. ,
If baby is delivered after 41 week it is refer as post term delivery.
Baby is born before 37 weeks is term as preterm delivery and it is observe they are at high risk health problem such as cerebral palsy.
Cerebral palsy is a disorder of movement, muscle tone or posture that is caused by an insult to the immature, developing brain, most often before birth.
As per advice by medical expert delivery before 39 week by inducting labor pain or caesarean section is not recommended until unless it is require for other medical reason.
Available data report approxmately10-15% of pregnancies end in miscarriage. Due to complication of pregnancies 293,000 deaths were reported in the year 2013 but quite low as compare to 377,000 deaths reported in 1990.This is due to awareness among parents and improvement and advancement in quality medical care with the passage of time.
Miscarriage may result in due to maternal bleeding, abortion complications, high blood pressure of pregnancy, maternal sepsis, and obstructed labor.
As per worldwide report 40% of pregnancies are not planned out of which half of them are aborted.
Some common pregnancy symptoms and discomforts is observed which include:
- Tiredness / slackness
- Pain in hip
- Back pain
- Swelling or Edema. It is commonly observe with advancement during gestation.
- Increase in frequency of urine.
- Haemorrhoids commonly known as piles
- Heart burn, acidity and nausea.
- Tenderness in breast is common during 1st
- Urinary tract infection is also may be observe.
- Pregnancy symptoms stretch marks scientifically term as Striae gravidarum.
- Varicose veins. It is common complaint observe and is cause by relaxation of smooth venous muscle and increased intravascular pressure.
Time of Child birth
Stages of pregnancy term
At 37 week
As mentioned above preterm birth may lead to complications and this phase should be avoided if it is possible.
In few cases if a woman’s water breaks or she has contractions before 39 weeks than this birth is unavoidable. In case of birth after 37 week is require, this term to be consider and this is not associated with the same risks as in case of preterm birth delivery.
In case of you or your doctor plan the birth of baby before 39 weeks either by Caesarean section procedure or labor pain induction; this may increase the risk of complications. It may result in the following, such as under develop lungs of newborns, infection may be due to under develop immune system, feeding problems due to under develop brain, and jaundice from underdeveloped liver.
Babies who are born between 39 and 41 weeks of pregnancy have better health and outcomes and this phase is refer as full term, than the babies who are born either before or after this range.
Waiting for labor to begin on its own whenever possible, this waiting time period is best for the health of the mother and baby. The decision by your gynecologist, physician or midwives to prepare for induction will have to evaluated and weighing the risk v/s necessity with benefits. This is safer after 39 week of pregnancy.
In case of delay in period of gestation and delivery after 42nd week is refer as post term. If period exceed 42 week than risk of complication for both the pregnant lady and fetus increases. To avoid this stage of post term and complication the obstetrician choose to induce labor pain in week 41 or 42.
Birth of baby refers in medical term labor and delivery. The pregnant women as she normally approaches 37 or more weeks of pregnancy symptoms is considered to be as labor and at this time she experience regular uterine contraction which is accompanied by changes in her cervix dilation. The birth of the child results in mother to have pain and labor is painful procedure. In few cases it is reported by mother a painless delivery. In most of cases baby’s birth are vaginal birth but in few cases problem and complication arises and mothers have to go for surgery which is refer as cesarean section.
Researches have shown the skin-to-skin contact with mother and her newborn immediately after birth is very beneficial for both the mother and baby. This establish a strong bonding between both
As reported by the World Health Organization that bonding and contact between mothers and babies after birth reduces crying, improves mother & newborn interaction. This also helps mothers to breastfeed baby successfully. As per WHO’s recommendation the newborn to be allowed to bond with the mother during their first two hours after birth.
Colostrum secretion from mother breast is highly ideal for newborn.
After delivery of newborn, mother body will produce very special milk and this term as colostrum. It is highly concentrated, easily digested milk. This contains all the necessary ingredients needed by baby though it produced in small volume. The colostrum helps in building up immunity system of your baby and delivers growth hormone needed by your newborn. This has also laxative property and this helps in developing and kick start the digestive system. Colostrum normally last for five days after delivery, later on it is translated into breast milk. As per WHO’s recommendation baby to be only fed by breast feeding for first six month than later is supplemented by solid food. Breast milk fulfills the nutritional requirement healthy food for baby for first six months.
By Mahmood Hussain 21st January 2016 for Baby First Pakistan.