Obesity is term used for a person having excessive adipose/fat tissues on their body. This is a global problem and it still is on rise.
Obesity is term as most pervasive, chronic and serious disease worldwide.
This has negative effect on vital organ of our body. Those who are overweight as per recommended guidelines in term of obesity, will likely to have more chances of risk for developing serious health problem:
Such as Diabetes type 2, Heart disease, hypertension, high cholesterol, heart failure, sleep disorder, heart burn & acidity, degenerative bone disease such as Arthritis, osteoporosis, respiratory conditions, birth defects, numerous cancer and other diseases.
In a report published by Express Tribune on this issue which was published in May 2014, which states with headline in terms of obesity “Pakistan ranked as 9th country in the world”. The Lancet Medical Journal published a study and the main point highlighted was “No country out of 180 was able to control obesity since long it means 1980”.
Reported figure of 670 million are term as obese worldwide, they are term in the category of obesity.
Leading country is USA with 78 million, are termed as obese which account for 5% of global population. After USA is followed by China and in 3rd place is India. Remaining seven leading countries in term of obesity are Russia, Indonesia, Pakistan, Brazil, Germany, Egypt and Mexico. (1)
As mentioned above obesity if not managed seriously this will puts a person at risk and may possibly have more than 30 chronic health conditions.
As per report and data from USA, it states obesity or excess weight is define as disease and it is affecting more than 66% of US Adult population means approximately 78 million people.
Whereas 15% of US children between the ages of 6 and 19 are overweight
As reported in US, obesity is leading cause of mortality, damaging vital organs, may also lead to disability or restrict mobility, this lead to health care utilization and cost (burden) to treat any of these symptom beside request for reduce weight.
The best way to manage is you feel yourself and aware of the fact. The most common way to aware of obesity (adipose tissue) is by BMI that is Body Mass Index. What is it?
It is a mathematical calculation which is of height and weight of individual, irrespective of family history, gender, age or race. BMI is calculated by dividing a person’s body weight with pounds (lbs) and inches (in) squared as shown below. This number can be misleading however, for very muscular people, during pregnancy or mother who are doing breast feeding to their babies.
[Weight (lbs) ÷ height (in) 2] x 704.5 =BMI
The BMI cutoffs are:
With below chart it is easy to understand definition of overweight and obesity through MBI chart
BMI of Adults Age 20 and Older
|18.5 to 24.9||Normal weight|
|25 to 29.9||Overweight|
|40 +||Extreme obesity|
BMI is frequently used in population studies due to its ease of determination as well as well-supported association with mortality and health effects. However, other methods of measures of excess adipose tissue, such as waist circumference, waist-to-hip ratio and others are also used. Individuals may need to use additional factors to assess their individual risk including family history, level of physical activity, smoking and dietary habits.
Waist circumference it is the second most commonly method use to assess the obesity.
Waist circumference is also widely use method to determine abdominal fat content. An excess of abdominal fat, is out of proportion to the total body fat, is considered as a predictor of risk factors which is related to obesity.
The male having waist measurement of exceeding 40 inches and woman having waist measurement more than 35 inches are considered at more risk.
Overweight and obesity found in children and young adult.
In children between the ages of 2 to 5 they have a lower chance of overweight as compare to older youth may lead to obesity.
As per data reported in regard to children between age of 2 to 19 years in regard to overweight and obesity is quite alarming and such as: (2)
32% in this age group of 2-19 years are considered to be overweight / obese. Approximately 17% are considered as obese.
The prevalence ratio among boys and girls in regard to overweight or obesity do not have much difference. In boys ratio is 1:3 that is 33% and in girls prevalence is 30.5%.
The data also further explain approximately 19% of boys and 15% of girls in survey are term as obese
Role of Physical activity in reducing weight as per statistic is:
Research results suggest in adults staying active is having positive effect on health outcome rather than no or less physical activity. Regular Physical activity may reduce chances hypertension which is very commonly found now days in adults and it is also term as silent killer. Secondly less chances of heart attack, heart Burn / acidity, diabetes type 2 and many more.
As per researcher and their finding it is believed some physical activity is better than no physical activity.
As per recommendation guidelines it is recommended healthy adult should do 150 minutes per week in divided way aerobic activity of mild to moderate in nature. Secondly normal adult can do vigorous aerobic activity and spend 75 minutes per week to stay healthy and fit.
As per study conducted in USA in year 2003-4 and they found out 3-5 % people do meet the above recommendation physical activity to remain fit and healthy .
Article written by Mahmood Hussain
1: Express Tribune 29 May, 2014
2: Source: NHANES, 2009–2010